Saturday, November 25, 2017

[Botany • 2017] A Revision of Microchirita (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand



 Puglisi & Middleton, 2017. 
Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 69(2)

ABSTRACT

 Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Yin Z.Wang (Gesneriaceae: Didymocarpoideae) in Thailand is revised and 29 species are recognised, two of which have three varieties each. Eight new species are described, Microchirita albocyanea C.Puglisi, Microchirita glandulosa C.Puglisi, Microchirita hypocrateriformis C.Puglisi, Microchirita limbata C.Puglisi, Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi, Microchirita tadphoensis C.Puglisi, Microchirita tetsanae C.Puglisi, Microchirita thailandica C.Puglisi; three new varieties are described, Microchirita involucrata var. gigantiflora C.Puglisi, Microchirita mollissima var. glabra C.Puglisi, Microchirita mollissima var. glandulophylla C.Puglisi; and one name is combined at a new rank, Microchirita involucrata var. capitis (Craib) C.Puglisi. Two lectotypifications are made, one of which is a second step lectotypification. A key to all taxa is given, all taxa are described, and many are illustrated. 

Keywords. Chirita, Didymocarpoideae, Flora of Thailand, Gesneriads, new species, taxonomy


Fig. 1. Inflorescence types.
A. Cristate inflorescence of Microchirita bimaculata (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton. From Middleton, D.J. et al 4514. B. Bracteate inflorescence of Microchirita rupestris (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah. From Puglisi, C. et al. CP409. (Photos: A, D.J. Middleton; B, P. Karaket)

Taxonomic treatment 

Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Yin Z.Wang,
J. Syst. Evol. 49: 59 (2011). 
– Chirita sect. Microchirita C.B.Clarke in Candolle & Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 5: 127 (1883).
 – Roettlera sect. Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Fritsch in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV/3b: 148 (1895).
 – Didymocarpus sect. Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Chun, Sunyatsenia 6: 290 (1946). 

– TYPE: Microchirita hamosa (R.Br.) Yin Z.Wang, lectotype designated by Burtt (1954: 196).



1. Microchirita albiflora D.J.Middleton & Triboun, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 41: 19 (2013). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Chiang Rai, Mae Fa Luang District, ..., 1000 m alt., 23 September 2008, Middleton, D.J., Karaket, P., Triboun, P., Kawatkul, U. & Meeboonya, R. 4567 (holotype BKF; isotypes BK, E [E00629491], K, P [P00966762], QBG, SING [SING0229831]).  


2. Microchirita albocyanea C.Puglisi, sp. nov. 
Most similar to Microchirita limbata C.Puglisi in the overall shape of the corolla and in colour, but differs in not having a glandular indumentum and in the much longer corolla and larger calyx. – TYPE: Thailand, Loei, Pha Khao, ..., 447 m, 5 November 2014, Tetsana, N. et al. 876 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 2D–F)


3. Microchirita aratriformis (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011).
 – Chirita aratriformis D.Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 367 (1972); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 197 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 87 (2001).
 – TYPE: [Vietnam], Tonkin, Langson, Khanmoi, Eberhardt 3332 (holotype P [P00602506]). (Fig. 3A–B)


4. Microchirita bimaculata (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011).
Chirita bimaculata D.Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 31: 368 (1972); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 196 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 87 (2001).
 – TYPE: Thailand, Maeklang Falls, c. 50 km Northwest of Chiang Mai, c. 430 m, 3 November 1967, Burtt, B.L. 5611 (holotype E [E00155280]). (Fig. 4)



Fig. 2.  ข้าวตอกโยนก Microchirita albiflora D.J.Middleton & Triboun. A. Habit. B. Front view of flower.All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4567. Microchirita albocyanea C.Puglisi. E. Side view of the flower. F. Front view of the flower. All from Tetsana, N. et al. 876. (Photos: A, B, P. Karaket; C, D.J. Middleton; D–F, N. Tetsana)

Fig. 3. Microchirita aratriformis (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton. A. Side view of the flower. B. Front view of flower. All from Tetsana, N. et al. 871. Microchirita hamosa (R.Br.) Yin Z.Wang.   E. Side view of the flower. F. Front view of flower. C from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4519; D from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4522; E, F from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5016. (Photos: A, B, N. Tetsana; C, D, D.J. Middleton; E, F, P. Karaket)

Fig. 4. Microchirita bimaculata (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton.C. Detail of a unifoliate plant. D. Front view of the flower.  A, C from Suddee, S. et al. 4970; B from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4514; D from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4520; E, F from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4479. (Photos: A, C, S. Suddee; B, D–F, P. Karaket)

Fig. 5. Microchirita hemratii C.Puglisi. A. Front view of flower. B. Side view of the flower. All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5775. Microchirita huppatatensis C.Puglisi. C. Detail of the flower. D. Habit. All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5689. (Photos: P. Karaket

Fig. 6. Microchirita hypocrateriformis C.Puglisi.  C. Front view of a white flower. D. Side view of the flower. E. Front view of a blue flower. F. Blue-flowered caulescent plant. A–D from Tetsana, N. et al. 888; E, F from Tetsana, N. et al. 834. (Photos: N. Tetsana

Fig. 7. Microchirita involucrata (Craib) Yin Z.Wang var. involucrata. A. Habit and fruit. B. Front view of the flower.  All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5391. (Photos: P. Karaket)

5. Microchirita elphinstonia (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011).
Chirita elphinstonia Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 149 (1932); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 224 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 195 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 87 (2001). 

– TYPE: Cult. in Hort. Aberdeen from seeds of Marcan 2561, coll. Thailand, Krabin, Ban Keng, 30 m, limestone hill (lectotype K [K000545615], ...


6. Microchirita glandulosa C.Puglisi, sp. nov.
 Similar to Microchirita involucrata (Craib) Yin Z.Wang and M. rupestris (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah) in having bracteate inflorescences. Differs from both in the bracts being fused only at the base (i.e. not divided as in Microchirita involucrata and not fused into a cup as in M. rupestris), in the dimorphic indumentum of sparse, long eglandular hairs and dense short glandular hairs on the leaf (eglandular indumentum in M. involucrata and M. rupestris), and in the tripartite calyx. It differs further from Microchirita involucrata in the serrate margin of the bracts and from M. rupestris in the much smaller size of the bracts. – TYPE: Thailand, Nan, Song Kwaw, Sakoen, Khao Tham Plakang, 750 m, 3 September 2006, Watthana, S. 2126 (holotype QBG; isotype CMU).



7. Microchirita hamosa (R.Br.) Yin Z.Wang, J. Syst. Evol. 49: 60 (2011).
 – Chirita hamosa R.Br., Cyrtandreae 117 (1839); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 224 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 191 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 87 (2001). 

– TYPE (conserved – see Middleton & Puglisi, 2015): Thailand, Tak, Umphang, ..., 915 m, 17 October 2014, Middleton, D.J., Hemrat, C., Karaket, P., Puglisi, C. & Suddee, S. 5762 (holotype E; isotypes BKF, SING). (Fig. 3C–F)


8. Microchirita hemratii C.Puglisi, Kew Bull. 71(1)-2: 4 (2016). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Tak, Mae Sot distr., Wat Tham Inthanin, 660 m, 18 October 2014, Middleton, D.J., Hemrat, C., Karaket, P., Puglisi, C. & Suddee S. 5775 (holotype BKF; isotypes E [E00663027], SING). (Fig. 5A–B)

9. Microchirita huppatatensis C.Puglisi, Kew Bull. 71(1)-2: 2 (2016). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Uthai Thani, Lan Sak, Huppatat Non Hunting Area, 122 m, 14 October 2014, Middleton, D.J., Hemrat, C., Karaket, P., Puglisi, C., Suddee, S. 5689 (holotype BKF). (Fig. 5C–D)


  


หยาดสวนสวรรค์ Microchirita hypocrateriformis C. Puglisi 
  ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามเขาหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีเหลืองอ่อนหรือสีม่วง แต่ที่พบมากจะเป็นสีเหลืองอ่อน กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก 
พรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) พบขึ้นตามเขาหินปูนในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของไทย เช่นบริเวณสวนสวรรค์ สวนหินผางาม อำเภอหนองหิน จังหวัดเลย อำเภอคอนสาร จังหวัดชัยภูมิ



10. Microchirita hypocrateriformis C.Puglisi, sp. nov. Differs from all other species of Microchirita (C.B.Clarke) Yin Z.Wang in the combination of long, narrow corolla tube, abruptly opening into spreading limb, in the long lower corolla lobe, and in the presence of a fringe of glandular indumentum at the base of the upper lip. 

– TYPE: Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Khon Sarn, Wat Tham Huang Po, 400 m, 19 October 2015, Suddee, S., Keiwbang, W., Hemrat, C. 4967 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 6)


11. Microchirita involucrata (Craib) Yin Z.Wang, J. Syst. Evol. 49: 60 (2011); Rafidah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 69: 15 (2017). 
– Chirita involucrata Craib, Gard. Chron., Ser. 3, 83: 140 (1928); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 223 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 199 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 88 (2001). 

– TYPE: Cult. Hort. Bot. Aberdeen from seeds collected by Kerr (Kerr 11172), Thailand, Kaw Tao [Surat Thani, Kao Tao], 30/12/1926 (lectotype ABD [specimen with appended protologue], designated by Puglisi in Rafidah (2017); isolectotypes ABD [2 sheets]). (Fig. 7)

11a. Microchirita involucrata var. involucrata 
11b. Microchirita involucrata var. capitis (Craib) C.Puglisi, stat. nov.
Chirita capitis Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 173 (1930); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 223 (1962).

11c. Microchirita involucrata var. gigantiflora C.Puglisi, var. nov. 

12. Microchirita karaketii D.J.Middleton & Triboun, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 41: 17 (2013). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Chiang Dao District, Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Tam Pak Piang, 530 m alt., 20 September 2008, Middleton, D.J., Karaket, P., Triboun, P., Kawatkul, U. & Meeboonya, R. 4526 (holotype BKF; isotypes E [E00629480], P [P00966764], QBG). (Fig. 8) 



13. Microchirita lilacina C.Puglisi, Kew Bull. 71(1)-2: 5 (2016).
 – TYPE: Thailand, Tak, Umphang, 504 m, 15 October 2014, Middleton, D.J., Hemrat, C., Karaket, P., Puglisi, C. & Suddee, S. 5704 (holotype BKF; isotypes AAU, E [E00663028], K, QBG, SING). (Fig. 9)


หยาดผาผึ้ง Microchirita limbata C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) 
จากเขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าผาผึ้ง อำเภอคอนสาร จังหวัดชัยภูมิ ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามก้อนหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีม่วง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก 
เป็นพรรณไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลกและเป็นพรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284. ตัวอย่างต้นแบบ Suddee, Keiwbang & Hemrat 4968 เก็บจากเขาหินปูน ถ้ำฮวงโป เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าผาผึ้ง 


14. Microchirita limbata C.Puglisi, sp. nov. 
Species characterised by the tubular corolla with white tube and blue lobes, and by the widespread glandular indumentum. It is most similar to Microchirita albocyanea C.Puglisi in the overall shape and colour of the corolla, but differs in the smaller flowers and in having a glandular indumentum. 

– TYPE: Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Khon San, Wat Tham Huang Po, 443 m, 19 October 2015, Suddee, S., Keiwbang, W., Hemrat, C. 4968 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 10)


Fig. 7. Microchirita involucrata (Craib) Yin Z.Wang var. involucrata.  C. Side view of the flower. D. Lateral view. All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5391. (Photos: P. Karaket)
Fig. 8. Microchirita karaketii D.J.Middleton & Triboun.   C. Side view of the flower. D. Front view of the flower. A, C, D from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4526; B from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4536. (Photos: A–C, D.J. Middleton; D, P. Karaket)
Fig. 9. Microchirita lilacina C.Puglisi.  C. Cristate inflorescence, fruit and side view of the flower. D. Front view of the flower. A from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5704; B–D from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5699. (Photos: P. Karaket
Fig. 10. Microchirita limbata C.Puglisi. A. Habit. B. Front view of the flower. C. Fruits. D. Lateral view of the flower. A, D from Tetsana, N. et al. 883; B, C from Suddee, S. et al. 4968. (Photos: A, D, N. Tetsana; B, C, S. Suddee


Fig. 11. Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi. A. Habit. B. Front view of the flower.  All from Tetsana, N. et al. 829. Microchirita marcanii (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton.   E. Side view of the flower. F. Front view of the flower. All from RBG Edinburgh accession number 20121420. (Photos: A–C, N. Tetsana; D–F, D.J. Middleton)

Fig. 13.  Microchirita purpurea D.J.Middleton & Triboun. D. Habit. E. Lateral view of the flower. F. Front view of the flower. All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5681. (Photos: P. Karaket
Fig. 14. Microchirita rupestris (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah.   C. Side view of the flower. D. Detail of the corolla. A, B from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5721; C from Middleton, D.J. et al. 4836; D from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5204. (Photos: A, B, P. Karaket; C, D, D.J. Middleton
Fig. 18. Microchirita viola (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah. A. Lateral view of the flower. B. Front view of the flower. All from Middleton, D.J. et al. 5467.   (Photos: A, B, D.J. Middleton)  


15. Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi, sp. nov. 
Similar to Microchirita tubulosa (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton but differs in not having spots inside the lateral corolla lobes, having an entire disk (usually dorsally cleft in M. tubulosa), glandular indumentum on the stems (vs. eglandular), and acuminate calyx lobes (vs. usually acute, more rarely slightly acuminate). It is also similar to Microchirita marcanii in the shape of the corolla, but differs in the mixed eglandular and glandular indumentum on many plant parts (eglandular only in M. marcanii (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton) and the corolla colour pattern (light yellow corolla with a yellow stripe vs. orange corolla with lateral purple spots). Finally, it differs from Microchirita elphinstonia (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton in having a glandular indumentum and in the larger and much paler yellow corolla. 
– TYPE: Loei, Nong Hin, Suan Sa Wan, Pha Ngam Forest Park, 662 m, 11 September 2014, Tetsana, N. et al. 829 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 11A–C)

16. Microchirita marcanii (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011). 
Chirita marcanii Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 171 (1926); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 226 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 193 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 88 (2001). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Saraburi, Muak Lek, c. 250 m, 10 November 1924, Marcan 1872 (lectotype ABD, designated by Wood (1974: 193); isolectotypes K (2)). (Fig. 11D–F)


17. Microchirita micromusa (B.L.Burtt) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011). 
Chirita micromusa B.L.Burtt, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 85: 28 (1960); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 226 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 194 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 88 (2001). 

– TYPE: Thailand, Nakhon Nayok, cult. in Montreal Botanic Garden from seeds collected by Raymond & Smitinand, Raymond, M. ref. 106-59 (holotype E [E00155279]).

18. Microchirita mollissima (Ridl.) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011).
 – Chirita mollissima Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 517 (1896); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 226 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 188 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 88 (2001). 

– TYPE: Siam [Thailand], Pungah [Phangnga], July 1893, Curtis 2944 (lectotype SING [SING0117733] ....

18a. Microchirita mollissima var. mollissima 
18b. Microchirita mollissima var. glabra C.Puglisi, var. nov. 
18c. Microchirita mollissima var. glandulophylla C.Puglisi, var. nov. 


19. Microchirita oculata (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 778 (2011).
 – Chirita oculata Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew. 174 (1930); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 226 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 194 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 88 (2001). 

– TYPE: “described from a plant which flowered in Aberdeen in Jul 1928. It was raised from seed of Kerr 9750 which was collected on Kao Sakan, 6 November 1928” (lectotype ABD, designated by Wood (1974: 194); isolectotype E [E00155281]). (Fig. 12D–F)


20. Microchirita personata C.Puglisi, Kew Bull. 71(1)-2: 1 (2016). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Uthai Thani, Lan Sak, Huppatat Non Hunting Area, 122 m, 14 October 2014, Middleton, D.J., Hemrat, C., Karaket, P., Puglisi, C. & Suddee, S. 5688 (holotype BKF; isotypes AAU, E [E00663026], K, SING). (Fig. 13A–C)

21. Microchirita purpurea D.J.Middleton & Triboun, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 41: 14 (2013). 
– TYPE: Thailand, Chanthaburi, Kaeng Hang Maeo, Khao Chamao National Park, ..., 30 m alt., 27 August 2012, Middleton, D.J., Karaket, P., Suddee, S. & Triboun, P. 5681 (holotype BKF; isotypes A [00435722], BK, E [E00626983], K, P [P00966760], QBG, SING [SING0229833]). 



22. Microchirita rupestris (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah, Taxon 60: 779 (2011); Rafidah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 69: 18 (2017). – Chirita rupestris Ridl., J. Straits Branch Roy. Asiat. Soc. 44: 59 (1905); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 227 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 201 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 89 (2001). – TYPE: Malaysia, Kedah, Langkawi, on damp rocks, sea level, November 1889, Curtis 2120 (lectotype SING [SING0042989], designated by Puglisi in Rafidah (2017: 18); isolectoype SING [SING0042990]). (Fig. 14)


23. Microchirita suddeei D.J.Middleton & Triboun, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 41: 18 (2013). – TYPE: Thailand, Phrae, Rong Kwang District, Tham Pha Nang Khoi, 210 m alt., 17 August 2012, Middleton, D.J., Karaket, P., Suddee, S. & Triboun, P. 5618 (holotype BKF; isotypes E [E00629451], P [P00966761], QBG, SING [SING0229832]). (Fig. 15A–C)


  

หยาดตาดโพธิ์  Microchirita tadphoensis C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) จากอุทยานแห่งชาติภูลังกา อำเภอบ้านแพง จังหวัดหนองนครพนม ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามก้อนหินทรายที่ชื้น ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีเหลือง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก 


24. Microchirita tadphoensis C.Puglisi, sp. nov.  
Most similar to Microchirita hamosa (R.Br.) Yin Z.Wang in the delicate habit and to M. bimaculata (D.Wood) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton in the shape of the corolla. Differs in having a shortly campanulate pale yellow corolla (white in Microchirita hamosa) with a ventral darker yellow marking but no lateral spots (spots always present in M. bimaculata).
 – TYPE: Thailand, Nakhon Phanom, Ban Phaeng, Phu Langka National Park, Tad Pho Waterfall, 224 m, 23 October 2015, Suddee, S., Keiwbang, W. & Hemrat, C. 4980 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 15D–F)


Fig. 16. Microchirita tetsanae C.Puglisi. A. Habit. B. Front view of the flower. All from Tetsana, N. et al. 855.
Microchirita thailandica C.Puglisi. C. Habit. D. Front view of the flower. E. Lateral view of the flower. All from Tetsana, N. et al. 904. (Photos: N. Tetsana)

    

ม่วงเทศนา Microchirita tetsanae C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) 
พรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) จากเขาหินปูน อำเภอเมือง จังหวัดเพชรบูรณ์ ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามหน้าผาหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีม่วง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก แฉกบน 2 กลีบ โคนไม่ซ้อนทับแฉกล่าง โคนกลีบปากมีแต้มสีเหลือง 

25. Microchirita tetsanae C.Puglisi, sp. nov.
 Species characterised by the presence of a dimorphic indumentum on the anthers and sparse hairs on the filaments, and by a little projection at the anther insertion. It is most similar to Microchirita thailandica C.Puglisi, but differs in the upper lobes not being imbricate with the lower, and in the filament projection. – TYPE: Thailand, Phetchabun, Mueang Phetchabun, Wat Tham Nam Bang, 130 m, 13 September 2014, Tetsana, N. et al. 855 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 16A–B)


26. Microchirita thailandica C.Puglisi, sp. nov.
 Species most similar to Microchirita tetsanae C.Puglisi in the colour pattern of the corolla, differing in having a narrower tube which widens abruptly (gradually widening in M. tetsanae), all corolla lobes imbricate (vs. lateral lobes not imbricate with the upper in M. tetsanae), a shorter ventral tube, and in not having a projection at the anther insertion. – TYPE: Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Phak Dee Chumphon, Wat Thum Wua Daeng, 460 m, 8 November 2014, Tetsana, N. et al. 904 (holotype BKF; isotype SING). (Fig. 16C–E)

27. Microchirita tubulosa (Craib) A.Weber & D.J.Middleton, Taxon 60: 79 (2011). 

Chirita tubulosa Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 173 (1922); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 227 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 190 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 89 (2001). 

– TYPE: “described from plants grown from seed collected by Kerr. Flowered in October 1921” (lectotype ABD, first step designated by Wood (1974: 190), second sted designated here [the specimen which matches the image deposited in E, barcode E00155288]; isolectotypes ABD, E). (Fig. 17)


28. Microchirita viola (Ridl.) A.Weber & Rafidah, Taxon 60: 779 (2011); Rafidah, Gard. Bull. Singapore 69: 26 (2017).
– Chirita viola Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 516 (1896); Barnett, Fl. Siam. 3: 228 (1962); Wood, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 33: 190 (1974); Burtt, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 29: 89 (2001). – Didymocarpus viola (Ridl.) Williams, Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. 2, 5: 434 (1905).

– TYPE: Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia, Kedah, Langkawi, September 1890, Curtis 2570 (lectotype SING [SING0042993], designated by Rafidah (2017: 26); isolectotypes SING [SING0042994, SING0042995]). (Fig. 18A–B)



29. Microchirita woodii D.J.Middleton & Triboun, Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 41: 15 (2013).
– TYPE: Thailand, Nan, Muang Nan, Tham Pha Tup Forest Park, trail to Phra Cave, 300 m alt., 16 August 2012, Middleton, D.J., Karaket, P., Suddee, S. & Triboun, P. 5612 (holotype BKF; isotypes BK, E [00629450], P [P00966763]).


   

C. Puglisi and D.J. Middleton. 2017.  A Revision of Microchirita (Gesneriaceae) in Thailand. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 69(2); 211 - 284. 


  

หยาดผาผึ้ง Microchirita limbata C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) 
จากเขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าผาผึ้ง อำเภอคอนสาร จังหวัดชัยภูมิ ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามก้อนหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีม่วง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก 
เป็นพรรณไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลกและเป็นพรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284. ตัวอย่างต้นแบบ Suddee, Keiwbang & Hemrat 4968 เก็บจากเขาหินปูน ถ้ำฮวงโป เขตรักษาพันธุ์สัตว์ป่าผาผึ้ง 

    

ม่วงเทศนา Microchirita tetsanae C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) 
จากเขาหินปูน อำเภอเมือง จังหวัดเพชรบูรณ์ ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามหน้าผาหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีม่วง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก แฉกบน 2 กลีบ โคนไม่ซ้อนทับแฉกล่าง โคนกลีบปากมีแต้มสีเหลือง
พรรณไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลกและเป็นพรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284. 2017 คำระบุชนิด ‘tetsanae’ มาจากนามสกุล ดร.นัยนา เทศนา ผู้เก็บตัวอย่าง Tetsana et al. 855 ตัวอย่างต้นแบบแรก (holotype) เก็บรักษาไว้ที่หอพรรณไม้ (BKF)

  


หยาดสวนสวรรค์ Microchirita hypocrateriformis C. Puglisi จากเขาหินปูน อำเภอเอราวัณ จังหวัดหนองบัวลำพู ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามเขาหินปูน ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีเหลืองอ่อนหรือสีม่วง แต่ที่พบมากจะเป็นสีเหลืองอ่อน กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก 
พรรณไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลกและเป็นพรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284. พบขึ้นตามเขาหินปูนในภาคตะวันออกเฉียงเหนือของไทย เช่นบริเวณสวนสวรรค์ สวนหินผางาม อำเภอหนองหิน จังหวัดเลย ตัวอย่างต้นแบบ Suddee, Keiwbang & Hemrat 4967 เก็บจากวัดถ้ำฮวงโป อำเภอคอนสาร จังหวัดชัยภูมิ

  

  

หยาดตาดโพธิ์ Microchirita tadphoensis C. Puglisi (Gesneriaceae) จากอุทยานแห่งชาติภูลังกา อำเภอบ้านแพง จังหวัดหนองนครพนม ไม้ล้มลุกขึ้นตามก้อนหินทรายที่ชื้น ลำต้นอวบน้ำ ดอกสีเหลือง กลีบดอกเชื่อมกันเป็นหลอด ปลายแยกเป็น 5 แฉก
พรรณไม้ชนิดใหม่ของโลกและเป็นพรรณไม้ถิ่นเดียวของไทย (endemic) ตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 69(2): 211–284. ตัวอย่างต้นแบบ Suddee, Keiwbang & Hemrat 4980 เก็บจากป่าดิบแล้ง เส้นทางน้ำตกตาดโพธิ์ อุทยานแห่งชาติภูลังกา

[Entomology • 2017] Oligoaeschna sirindhornae • A New Dragonfly Species (Odonata: Anisoptera: Aeshnidae) from Thailand


Oligoaeschna sirindhornae
 Ngiam & Orr, 2017

Abstract

Oligoaeschna sirindhornae sp. nov. is described from a male from Sakaerat Silvicultural Research Station, Nakhon Ratchasima Province in Thailand. It is the only known Oligoaeschna species recorded from Thailand since Oligoaeschna pramoti (Yeh, 2000) and Oligoaeschna minuta (Hämäläinen & Pinratana, 1999) were transferred to the genus Sarasaeschna.

Keywords: Odonata, Anisoptera, Aeshnidae, Oligoaeschnasirindhornae, new species, Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima, Sakaerat


FIGURE 1. Oligoaeschna sirindhornae sp. nov. holotype, habitus.

Etymology. We humbly dedicate this species to Her Royal Highness, The Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand, in recognition of her continuing support of nature conservation and as a mark of personal admiration by the authors. The specific epithet sirindhornae is a noun in the genitive case.


Robin W. J. Ngiam and Albert G. Orr. 2017. Oligoaeschna sirindhornae sp. nov., A New Dragonfly Species from Thailand (Odonata: Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).  Zootaxa. 4353(1); 195–200.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4353.1.13

   

[Ichthyology • 2017] Sinorhodeus microlepis • A New Genus and Species of Bitterling (Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae) from China


Sinorhodeus microlepis
 Li, Liao & Arai, 2017


Abstract

A new genus and speciesSinorhodeus microlepis gen. et sp. nov., is described from a tributary of the Yangtze River, in Chongqing City, China. Sinorhodeus gen. nov. can be distinguished from four closely related genera, Paratanakia, Pseudorhodeus, Rhodeus, and Tanakia, by the following combination of characters: pharyngeal teeth 0,0,4–4,0,0, longitudinal scales 41–46, white spots on dorsal-fin rays absent, a black blotch on dorsal fin in juvenile absent, and less developed wing-like yolk sac projections in larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of one mitochondrial gene and six nuclear genes supports the establishment of the new genus.

Keywords: Pisces, Cyprinidae, Rhodeus, Tanakia, phylogeny, Yangtze River, China


Sinorhodeus microlepis in breeding season, male (A) and female (B)







Fan Li, Te-Yu Liao, Ryoichi Arai and Liangjie Zhao. 2017. Sinorhodeus microlepis, A New Genus and Species of Bitterling from China (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).  Zootaxa. 4353(1); 69–88. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4353.1.4

终于发表了中国最艳丽的淡水鱼之一、鱊亚科新属新种——细鳞华鳑鲏 Sinorhodeus microlepis。本种为目前鱊亚科已知种中唯一咽齿为0,0,4-4,0,0、眶下感觉管为断线状、产卵于河蚬的特化物种,对于鱊亚科的物种演化等研究具有重要价值。


[Entomology • 2017] Taxonomic and Biogeographic Revision of the New Guinean genus Ophiotettix Walker, 1871 (Tetrigidae: Metrodorinae: Ophiotettigini trib. nov.), with the Descriptions of 33 New Species


Ophiotettix storozhenkoiO. filiformaO. pulcherrima, et al

Tumbrinck & Skejo, 2017

Long-headed pygmy grasshoppers (genus Ophiotettix Walker, 1871) from the New Guinean region (New Guinea and adjacent islands) are taxonomically and biogeographically reviewed. For Ophiotettix and the morphologically similar genera Paraspartolus Günther, 1939, Spartolus Stål, 1877 and Threciscus Bolívar, 1887 a new tribe is erected, Ophiotettigini trib. nov. This tribe is close to Clinophaestini Storozhenko, 2013, which is placed here also under Metrodorinae. Bufonidinae syn. rev. are regarded to be synonymous with Batrachideinae, not Cladonotinae, as previously considered. Statuses of currently known taxa of Ophiotettix are reviewed. The genus now includes 40 species, seven of them previously described: O. buergersi Bolívar, 1929, O. cygnicollis Walker, 1871, O. limosina (Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1865), O. lorentzi Bolívar, 1929, O. modesta Bolívar, 1929 stat. rev., O. scolopax Bolívar, 1929, O. westwoodi Bolívar, 1929 stat. rev. 33 new species are described and illustrated, namely: O. amberiana sp. nov., O. bewana sp. nov., O. bomberaiensis sp. nov., O. brevicollis sp. nov., O. cheesmanae sp. nov., O. depressa sp. nov., O. filiforma sp. nov., O. flyriveriensis sp. nov., O. fritzpahli sp. nov., O. hansscholteni sp. nov., O. imbiana sp. nov., O. kaitani sp. nov., O. karimuiensis sp. nov., O. katharinae sp. nov., O. luce sp. nov., O. meggy sp. nov., O. mountnokensis sp. nov., O. parvicollis sp. nov., O. projecta sp. nov., O. pulcherrima sp. nov., O. pushkari sp. nov., O. quateorum sp. nov., O. rebrinae sp. nov., O. roesleri sp. nov., O. rohwedderi sp. nov., O. sanguinea sp. nov., O. schapinae sp. nov., O. stallei sp. nov., O. storozhenkoi sp. nov., O. subbrevicollis sp. nov., O. telefominensis sp. nov., O. tenuis sp. nov., and O. toxopei sp. nov. An annotated identification key to species is provided. Antennal morphology (especially morphology of five apical segments) is diagnostically important in the taxonomy of this group and provides the best morphological character for species delimitation. Function of modified antennae is not fully understood. Differences between species exist also in head morphology, facial colouration, and morphometrics. Pygmy Giraffhoppers are a diverse group occupying most biogeographical regions of New Guinea North of the Central range, while only few species inhabit areas south of the central range.

 Keywords: Orthoptera, Tetrigidae, pygmy grasshoppers, Discotettiginae, New Guinea, taxonomy, new species, widened antennal segments, long head, horn




Josef Tumbrinck and Josip Skejo. 2017.   Taxonomic and Biogeographic Revision of the New Guinean genus Ophiotettix Walker, 1871 (Tetrigidae: Metrodorinae: Ophiotettigini trib. nov.), with the Descriptions of 33 New Species. In: Telnov, D., Barclay, M.V.L. & Pauwels, O.S.G. [Ed.] Biodiversity, Biogeography and Nature Conservation in Wallacea and New Guinea. 3; 525-580.   bib.irb.hr/904156

[Paleontology • 2017] The Squamation of the Eocene stem-Basilisk Geiseltaliellus maarius (Squamata: Iguanidae: Corytophaninae) from Messel, Germany


Geiseltaliellus maarius  Smith, 2009

life reconstruction by J. Eberhardt & A. Vogel  (SMF)
Smith, 2017SALAMANDRA. 53(4) 

Abstract

 An exceptional new specimen of the stem-basilisk Geiseltaliellus maarius from the middle Eocene of Messel, Germany, preserves details of the squamation of this extinct species. The dorsum and extremities were covered by small, rhomoidal scales, about 0.2 mm in size in most places; somewhat larger scales were present on the lower extremities and on the head. Scales of the venter were arranged in transverse rows, unlike in extant Polychrus and Laemanctus. There is some evidence that the scales on the extremities possessed keels, as in extant basilisks and Polychrus. Keratin appears to be preserved in places. The “Oberhäutchen” is nearly featureless, probably the result of postmortem microbial decomposition; scale organs were not observed. Overall, the body of G. maarius possessed a fine, homogeneous squamation most similar to Basiliscus. Possible sexual dimorphism in the form of the parietal crest raises the prospect of a projecting median keel composed of skin in male G. maarius, although direct evidence on this point is currently lacking. The squamation of the tail is discussed in light of the pseudoautotomy shown by this species. 

Key words: Fossils, Corytophanidae, Eocene, scales, keratin.


Figure 1. Skeleton with skin shadows of Geiseltaliellus maarius, SMF ME 11380a (part).
 (A) Detail of temple region of head. (B) Detail of throat or shoulder region. (C) Detail of right lower leg scales (over tibia and fibula). (D) Detail of left lower leg scales (torn downward and preserved around toe). (E) Detail of digit IV of left pes. Scale bar is 5 mm.

Figure 8. Reconstruction of the squamation of male Geiseltaliellus maarius from Messel.
Juliane Eberhardt (SMF) drew the life reconstruction, colored by Anika Vogel (SMF). 



 K. T. Smith. 2017. The Squamation of the Eocene stem-basilisk Geiseltaliellus maarius (Squamata: Iguanidae: Corytophaninae) from Messel, Germany. SALAMANDRA. 53(4); 519–530.  

  

[Botany • 2016] Floral Specialization for Different Pollinators and Divergent Use of the Same Pollinator Among Co-occurring Impatiens Species (Balsaminaceae) from Southeast Asia


Researchers have presented their results on specialization in pollination techniques in flowers of the genus Impatiens. For two months in 2014, they have studied 7 co-occurring species of the genus Impatiens in the Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

 Ruchisansakun, Tangtorwongsakul, Cozien, et al. 2016.

Floral variation among closely related species is thought to often reflect differences in pollination systems. Flowers of the large genus Impatiens are characterized by extensive variation in colour, shape and size and in anther and stigma positioning, but studies of their pollination ecology are scarce and most lack a comparative context. Consequently, the function of floral diversity in Impatiens remains enigmatic. This study documents floral variation and pollination of seven co-occurring Impatiens spp. in the Southeast Asian diversity hotspot. To assess whether floral trait variation reflects specialization for different pollination systems, we tested whether species depend on pollinators for reproduction, identified animals that visit flowers, determined whether these visitors play a role in pollination and quantified and compared key floral traits, including floral dimensions and nectar characteristics. Experimental exclusion of insects decreased fruit and seed set significantly for all species except I. muscicola, which also received almost no visits from animals. Most species received visits from several animals, including bees, birds, butterflies and hawkmoths, only a subset of which were effective pollinators. Impatiens psittacina, I. kerriae, I. racemosa and I. daraneenae were pollinated by bees, primarily Bombus haemorrhoidalis. Impatiens chiangdaoensis and I. santisukii had bimodal pollination systems which combined bee and lepidopteran pollination. Floral traits differed significantly among species with different pollination systems. Autogamous flowers were small and spurless, and did not produce nectar; bee-pollinated flowers had short spurs and large floral chambers with a wide entrance; and bimodally bee- and lepidopteran-pollinated species had long spurs and a small floral chamber with a narrow entrance. Nectar-producing species with different pollination systems did not differ in nectar volume and sugar concentration. Despite the high frequency of bee pollination in co-occurring species, individuals with a morphology suggestive of hybrid origin were rare. Variation in floral architecture, including various forms of corolla asymmetry, facilitates distinct, species-specific pollen-placement on visiting bees. Our results show that floral morphological diversity among Impatiens spp. is associated with both differences in functional pollinator groups and divergent use of the same pollinator. Non-homologous mechanisms of floral asymmetry are consistent with repeated independent evolution, suggesting that competitive interactions among species with the same pollination system have been an important driver of floral variation among Impatiens spp.

Keywords: autogamy; bee pollination; butterfly pollination; floral asymmetry; nectar robbing; nectar spur; pollen placement; sympatry; tropics



Figure 3. Impatiens flowers, showing variation in colour and shape and floral visitors:
 I. muscicola (A); 
I. santisukii pollinated by Polytremis lubricans lubricans (B) and Bombus haemorrhoidalis (C);
I. racemosa pollinated by B. haemorrhoidalis (D);
I. chiangdaoensis pollinated by Notocrypta curvifascia (E) and visited by a nectar-robbing B. haemorrhoidalis (F);
 I. psittacina pollinated by B. haemorrhoidalis (G);
  
I. kerriae pollinated by B. haemorrhoidalis (H) and visited by Apis cerana (I), Macroglossum belis (J), and Aethopyga gouldiae (K).
  I. daraneenae pollinated by an unknown bee species (Apidae) (L).



Black arrow in (A) indicates the typical position of the shed anthers onto the lower lateral united petals, facilitating autonomous self-pollination. All other arrows indicate pollen placement sites on visiting bee species (C, D, G, H, L). Scale bar in (A) represents 1 mm, all other scale bars represent 10 mm.


Saroj Ruchisansakun, Pornpimon Tangtorwongsakul, Ruth J. Cozien, Erik F. Smets FMLS and Timotheüs van der Niet. 2016. Floral Specialization for Different Pollinators and Divergent Use of the Same Pollinator Among Co-occurring Impatiens Species (Balsaminaceae) from Southeast Asia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181(4); 651–666.  DOI: 10.1111/boj.12427


In a study in the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, researchers (including 4  from Naturalis) have presented their results on specialization in pollination techniques in flowers of the genus Impatiens. For two months in 2014, they have studied 7 co-occurring species of the genus Impatiens (see video) in the Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Impatiens develops diff. floral shapes to specialize in pollination techniques + avoid competition! Blog+video https://science.naturalis.nl/en/about-us/news/onderzoek/flowers-impatiens-genus-and-their-specialization-pollination-techniques/?platform=hootsuite