Tuesday, May 23, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Psammogobius pisinnus • A New Species of Reef Goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Papua New Guinea and Australia


Psammogobius pisinnus  Allen, 2017


A new miniature species of gobiid fish, Psammogobius pisinnus n. sp., is described from West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea on the basis of 10 specimens, 10.8–17.9 mm SL. Diagnostic features include dorsal-fin rays VI + I,9 (rarely I,10), the third dorsal-fin spine sometimes with a short, filamentous extension; anal-fin rays I,9 (rarely I,8); pectoral-fin rays 16–19 (usually 17); the pelvic fins reaching the anal-fin origin; the pelvic frenum weakly developed; longitudinal scales 25–28; the tongue distinctly bilobed, and a live color pattern that is generally light gray to whitish with three broad brown saddles on the dorsal half of the body. The new species differs from the three previously described species of Psammogobius (P. biocellatus, P. knysnaensis, and P. viet) on the basis of its tiny adult size (less than 20 mm vs, about 70–80 mm SL), fully marine habitat (vs. brackish estuaries and tidal streams), possession of cheek and opercular scales (scaleless in other species, except P. biocellatus with scales on the upper portion of the opercle), only 5–7 predorsal scales (vs. 10–16), and color pattern. The new species is also reported from the northern Great Barrier Reef of Australia on the basis of a single specimen.

Key words: taxonomy, systematics, ichthyology, coral-reef fishes, Indo-Pacific Ocean


Figure 3. Psammogobius pisinnus, underwater photographs, approx. 13–17 mm SL, all West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (G.R. Allen), except lower right taken at Flynn Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (M. Onishi). 

Psammogobius pisinnus, n. sp.
Sandslope Goby

Diagnosis. A species of Psammogobius with the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays VI+I,9 (rarely I,10), third dorsal-fin spine sometimes with short filamentous extension; anal-fin rays I,9 (rarely I,8); pectoral-fin rays 16–19 (usually 17); pelvic fins reaching anal-fin origin; pelvic frenum weakly developed; longitudinal scales 25–28; predorsal scales 5–7; cheek and opercle scaled; tongue distinctly bilobed with a deep cleft between lobes; small maximum size of less than 20 mm SL. Color in life light gray to whitish with three broad brown saddles on dorsal half of body, the anteriormost darkest and positioned below first dorsal fin; operculum and cheek mottled dark brown; whitish streak on middle pectoral-fin rays. Inhabits sand slopes near coral reefs.

Etymology. The species is named pisinnus (Latin: small or little) with reference to the exceptionally small maximum size in comparison to congeners. 


 Gerald R. Allen. 2017. Psammogobius pisinnus, A New Species of Reef Goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Papua New Guinea and Australia. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 26, 80–85.  DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.571211

[Botany • 2016] Begonia suaviola & B. silverstonii • Two New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Colombian Western Cordillera


Begonia suaviola Jara


Abstract

Two New species of Begonia section Semibegoniella (C.DC) Barkley & Baranov (Begoniaceae) are described from the Colombian Western Cordillera. Illustrations of distinguishing characters, photos of living plants and a key to the Colombian Begonias with tepals fused are included.

Keywords: Begonia suaviolaBegonia silverstonii, Western Cordillera, Eudicots



Begonia suaviola Jara sp. nov.

Etymology:— The epithet come from the Latin word suavium (=kiss), because the common name of this plant in Valle del Cauca is “besito”, the Spanish word for kiss.


Begonia silverstonii Jara sp. nov. 

Etymology:— The epithet honors the botanist Philip A. Silverstone-Sopkin, who has collected and studied intensely the Valle del Cauca flora, from his position in the Herbarium (CUVC) in Cali (Valle del Cauca, Colombia).  


O. A. Jara-Muñoz. 2016. Two New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Colombian Western Cordillera. Phytotaxa. 257(1); 81 – 88. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.257.1.6

[Entomology • 2016] Three New Species and One New Subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with World Catalogue of the Genus


Deserticossus pulverulentus (Püngeler, 1898)


Abstract

Three new species and one new subspecies of the genus Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 are described: Deserticossus doroshkini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from eastern Kazakhstan (Tarbagatai Mts.), D. selevini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from southeastern Kazakhstan (Malye Boguty Mts.), D. kamelini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from Kyrgyzstan (Fergana Valley), and D. tsingtauana didenkoi Yakovlev & Witt subsp. nov. from Russia (Southern Siberia, Buryatia Republic). The described species and subspecies of Deserticossus are listed, with notes on the type material, synonymies, and distribution for each taxon.
Keywords: Cossidae, fauna, new species, Deserticossus, Lepidoptera, Russia




Roman V. Yakovlev and Thomas J Witt. 2017. Three New Species and One New Subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with World Catalogue of the Genus. Zootaxa.  4269(3); 379–395.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4269.3.3

[Ornithology • 2017] The Role of Niche Divergence and Geographic Arrangement in the Speciation of Eared Pheasants (Crossoptilon, Hodgson 1938)


 Wang, Liu, Liu, Chang, Wang & Zhang, 2017  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.003 

Highlights
• The phylogenetic relationship of Eared Pheasants was resolved based on 45 loci.
• Asymmetric historical gene flow occurred between both parapatric and allopatric sister species.
• Allopatric sister species exhibit significantly divergent ecological niches whereas parapatric sister species show niche conservatism.
• Ecological divergence may have been the main factor that promoted ecological niche divergence.

Abstract
One of the most contentious theories in current ecology is the ecological niche conservatism, which is defined as conservatism among closely related species; however, the ecological niche can also be shifted, as documented in several cases. Genetic drift and ecological divergent selection may cause ecological niche divergence. The current study aims to test whether the ecological niche is conserved or divergent and to determine the main factor that drives ecological niche divergence or conservation. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship, ecological niche model (ENM) and demographic history of Eared Pheasants in the genus Crossoptilon (Galliformes: Phasianidae) to test niche conservatism with respect to different geographically distributed patterns. The phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using ∗BEAST with mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and 44 unlinked autosomal exonic loci, and ENMs were reconstructed in MAXENT using an average of 41 occurrence sites in each species and 22 bioclimatic variables. A background similarity test was used to detect whether the ecological niche is conserved. Demographic history was estimated using the isolation with migration (IM) model. We found that there was asymmetric gene flow between the allopatric sister species Crossoptilon mantchuricum and C. auritum and the parapatric sister species C. harmani and Ccrossoptilon. We found that ecological niches were divergent, not conserved, between Cmantchuricum and Cauritum, which began to diverge at approximately 0.3 million years ago. However, the ecological niches were conserved between C. crossoptilon and C. harmani, which gradually diverged approximately half a million years ago. Ecological niches can be either conserved or divergent, and ecological divergent selection for local adaptation is probably an important factor that promotes and maintains niche divergence in the face of gene flow. This study provides a better understanding of the role that divergent selection has in the initial speciation process. The platform combined demographic processes and ecological niches to offer new insights into the mechanism of biogeography patterns.

Keywords: Crossoptilon; Eared-pheasant; Divergent selection; Ecological niche modeling; Genetic drift; Gene flow

Fig. 1. Map of the study area indicating the occurrence points used in for the background similarity test of Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) and the location of DNA samples used in demographic analyses. (The occurrence points (circles) were from bird-watching records (http://birdtalker.net), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (http://www.gbif.org) and our unpublished survey data. Occurrence points that were far from each other (at least 10 km) and were randomly chosen in ArcGIS software were used for the background similarity test. The study area was the minimal convex polygon of those occurrence points with an additional 200 km. Triangles represent the locations of DNA samples. The area surrounded by the black dashed line was the study area used for the background similarity test. 


Pengcheng Wang, Yang Liu, Yinong Liu, Yajing Chang, Nan Wang and Zhengwang Zhang. 2017. The Role of Niche Divergence and Geographic Arrangement in the Speciation of Eared Pheasants (Crossoptilon, Hodgson 1938). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.003

Monday, May 22, 2017

[Entomology • 2017] Phylogeny and Diversification of the Cloud Forest Morpho sulkowskyi Group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Evolving Andes



Abstract

The monophyletic Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly group, endemic of Andean cloud forests, was studied to test the respective contributions of Mio-Pliocene intense uplift period and Pleistocene glacial cycles on Andean biodiversity. We sampled nine taxa covering the whole geographical range of the group. Two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were analysed using a Bayesian method. We established a dated phylogeny of the group using a relaxed clock method and a wide-outgroup approach. To discriminate between two hypotheses, we used a biogeographical probabilistic method. Results suggest that the ancestor of the M. sulkowskyi group originated during the Middle–Late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera in northern Peru. Biogeographical inference suggests that the M. sulkowskyi and Morpho lympharis clades diverged in the northern Peruvian Andes. The subsequent divergences, from the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene, should have resulted from a dispersal towards the Northern Andes (M. sulkowskyi clade), after the closure of the West Andean Portal separating the Central and Northern Andes, and a southwards dispersal along the Peruvian and Bolivian Eastern Cordilleras (M. lympharis clade). Only a few divergences occurred at the very end of the Pliocene or during the Pleistocene, a period when the more recent uplifts interfered with Pleistocene glacial cycles.

Figure 1.  Map of the region where field studies were carried out, with habitus of the taxa calderoni, zachi and nieva (m: male; f: female; f1 and f2: female morphs within the calderoni population). N1 and N2: sampling areas along the upper Río Nieva. Other localities where specimens were collected: AP: Abra Patricia; EF: El Afluente; OP: Oso Perdido; PM: Abra Pardo Miguel; V: Venceremos. Two specimens of nieva were also collected at Santa Cruz del Mirador (M), at ca. 20 km ESE from El Afluente. 

Conclusions
Simple relationships between Andean uplift and the diversification of various plant and animal groups, implying pre-Pleistocene driving processes, have been supposed by various authors. Doan (2003), for example, proposed the south-to-north speciation hypothesis, where the process of speciation should be related to the south-to-north progression of uplift throughout the Andes. Other authors emphasized the possible role of a rapid uplift that occurred during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, but often without establishing clear links between dated divergences and local geologic events (e.g. Casner & Pyrcz 2010; Mulch et al. 2010; Matos-Maraví et al. 2013; Lagomarsino et al. 2016). From a geological point of view, the concept of a progressive, general south-to-north uplift is an oversimplified view of a much more complex reality (Sempere et al. 2008). In the Central Andes, palaeo-elevation histories differ not only between the south and the north, but also between the western and the eastern cordilleras, notably in northern Peru (Picard et al. 2008; Eude et al. 2015; Margirier et al. 2015). The idea that the Northern Andes, as a whole, uplifted later than the Central Andes, as suggested by Doan (2003), and often admitted by other authors, is not supported by geological studies that also demonstrate that the timing of palaeo-elevation differed between the three Colombian Cordilleras (Restrepo- Moreno et al. 2009). Consistent with many other examples, notably the clearwing Oleriina butterflies (De-Silva et al. 2016), the M. sulkowskyi group illustrates the diversity of diversification histories throughout the Andes. It also demonstrates that Mio-Pliocene orogenic and Pleistocene climatic diversification drivers should not be opposed.



Romain Nattier, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Catherine Cassildé, Arnaud Couloux, Corinne Cruaud, Gilbert Lachaume, Gerardo Lamas, Jean-François Silvain and Patrick Blandin. 2017. Phylogeny and Diversification of the Cloud Forest Morpho sulkowskyi Group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Evolving Andes.  Zoologica Scripta.  DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12226

   

[Botany • 2017] Kalanchoe hypseloleuce • A New Species (Crassulaceae) from eastern Ethiopia


Kalanchoe hypseloleuce  Friis & M. G. Gilbert


Summary
A new species of Kalanchoe, Kalanchoe hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, was found during field work in Ethiopia in 2015, and is established here. It is characterised by its tall stature (2 – 3 m), entire, sessile, lanceolate leaves and pure white flowers with abaxially minutely papillose corolla lobes (otherwise, the plant is glabrous). It is not obviously related to any previously known species, but an earlier, incomplete specimen has been cited as K. prittwitzii Engl. in the literature. K. hypseloleuce was collected on limestone in Acacia-Commiphora woodland and bushland at c. 1400 m a.s.l. It occurs in the southern part of the eastern Ethiopian escarpment in the Arsi and Eastern Harerghe zones of the Oromo Regional State. K. hypseloleuce is documented with images and maps, its climate envelope has been modelled, and a conservation assessment made. With the current level of threat, this could be Vulnerable to Near Threatened (VU-NT). Given the threat from habitat degradation is not imminent, we recommend the species to be listed as Near Threatened (NT).

Key Words: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, Afromontane forest, conservation, limestone, monocarpic, taxonomy, transitional semi-evergreen bushland 


Fig. 1.  Kalanchoe hypseloleuce
flowering specimens in E Arsi zone, Ethiopia; in the background fruiting Acacia senegal and flowering and fruiting Grewia schweinfurthii; in the foreground flowering Rhus natalensisdetail of inflorescence. 
PHOTOS: IB FRIIS 

Kalanchoe hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, sp. nov.

ETYMOLOGY. Our new epithet, hypseloleuce, is a compound of two Greek adjectives. The first, ψηλός, ή, όν, ‘high, lofty, (metaphorically) stately’, refers to the impressive height of the plant, it being one of the tallest known species of Kalanchoe in Africa. The second, λευκός, -ή, -όν, ‘light, bright, (of colour) white’, refers to the pure white flowers. The connecting vowel –o– is in agreement with Rec. 60G(a2) of the Code (McNeill et al. 2012). The generic name, Kalanchoe Adans. (Adanson 1763: 248), is said to be an adaptation of a Chinese name for a species in the genus (Harvey 1862) or derived from a Hindi word ‘kalanka’, meaning ‘rust’ or ‘spot’ (Quattrocchi 2000). In botanical literature, Kalanchoe is treated as feminine and, in agreement with Art, 23.5 of the Code, the feminine form of the terminal adjective is used. 


Ib Friis, Michael G. Gilbert, Paulo van Breugel, Odile Weber and Sebsebe Demissew. 2017. Kalanchoe hypseloleuce (Crassulaceae), A New Species from eastern Ethiopia, with Notes on its Habitat. Kew Bulletin. 72:30.  DOI:  10.1007/s12225-017-9704-7


Sunday, May 21, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Cryptic Diversity in the Indian Clade of the Catfish Family Pangasiidae Resolved by the Description of A New Species, Pangasius silasi


Pangasius silasi 
Dwivedi, Gupta, Singh, Mohindra, Chandra, Easawarn, Jena & Lal, 2017 


Abstract
Among 22 species of the genus Pangasius, distributed in Southeast and South Asia, only one species, Pangasius pangasius, is known to exist in South Asia. Phylogenetic analysis based upon COI and Cytb sequences suggested that the P. pangasius species clade consists of two subclades. Based upon the genetic and the following morphological evidence, we conclude that these DNA sequence based sister subclades represent two distinct species, P. pangasius and an undescribed species from river Krishna, named as Pangasius silasi. Morphologically, P. silasi is differentiated from its congener P. pangasius by a combination of characters, such as vomero-palatal teeth confluent as an uninterrupted curved band (vs two lunate vomero-palatal teeth patches on each side with a wide gap in the center) and vertebral count of 48 (vs 44). For several morphological characters, P. silasi is also distinct from P. myanmar, which is reported from Myanmar and has overlapping distribution with P. pangasius. Finally, the vomero-palatine dentition in P. silasi is distinct from the dentition structures reported for all the other Pangasius species. The biogeographical significance of finding this new species, P. silasi, in a river of the Indian peninsula is also discussed in this report.

Keywords: Pangasius, River Krishna, DNA sequences, Molecular phylogeny, Morphology, Biogeography

Fig. 4: Lateral view of the Pangasius silasi (a) holotype (NBFGR/PP 76, 321.2 mm SL) Fresh condition and (b) Formalin Preserved. c Paratype, fresh condition (NBFGR/PP 78, 379.5 mm SL) 

 Pangasius silasi sp. nov
The specimens of Pangasius sp. nov., (named as Pangasius silasi) PP 72–78 and PSH 01 (eight specimens.), 247.8–407.4 mm SL, were collected through the fish landings from Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, 16°53′N 79°26′E; Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India; Lal et al., 3 May 2013 (Fig. 4). This water body is shared between the Two Indian states, Andhra Pradesh (district Guntur) and Telangana (district Nalgonda). These specimens were studied for morphomeristic measurements and DNA sequence analysis. For future reference, the designated holotype PP 76 (321.2 mm SL) and paratype PP 78 (SL 379.5 mm SL) are preserved in NBFGR repository. Paratype (NBFGR Acc. No. NBFGR/PP 71) has been deposited with Museum of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkatta (ZSI FF 5621).

Distribution: At present P. silasi is known only from the type locality, the Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in Telangana, India.

Etymology of Nomenclature: The species name of P. silasi is derived from the name of Dr. E.G. Silas, who has made important contributions to taxonomy of Indian fish species, their biogeography and evolutionary divergence with the eminent scientist Prof. S. L. Hora.


Arvind K. Dwivedi, Braj Kishor Gupta, Rajeev K. Singh, Vindhya Mohindra, Suresh Chandra, Suresh Easawarn, Joykrushna Jena and Kuldeep K. Lal. 2017. Cryptic Diversity in the Indian Clade of the Catfish Family Pangasiidae Resolved by the Description of A New Species. Hydrobiologia. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3198-z

[Ichthyology • 2017] Altrichthys alelia • A New Brooding Damselfish (Perciformes, Pomacentridae) from Busuanga Island, Philippines


Altrichthys alelia 
Bernardi, Longo & Quiros, 2017 

 
DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.675.12061 

Abstract

A new species of damselfish, Altrichthys alelia sp. n. is described from specimens collected in shallow water (1–8m depth) off Busuanga Island, Palawan Province, Philippines. It differs from the other two species in the genus, A. curatus and A. azurelineatus, in various features including having golden upper body lacking dark edges of dorsal and caudal fins, higher modal number of tubed lateral line scales, as well as differences in two mitochondrial markers, one nuclear marker, and RAD markers.

Keywords: Apelagic fishes, Acanthochromis, CO1, Control region, RAD markers


Figure 3. Altrichthys alelia in its natural environment, near a common nesting substrate, the coral Porites cylindrica

Taxonomy
Alelia’s damselfish
Altrichthys alelia Bernardi, Longo, & Quiros, sp. n.

 Type locality: San José, Busuanga Island, Philippines. 


Diagnosis and description: A species of Altrichthys distinguished by the following combination of characters: dorsal rays XIV, 13–14; anal rays II, 15, tubed lateral line scales 14–15 (Table 1); preorbital and sensory pores small and numerous, usually more than 30, adult coloration in life pale green on upper half grading to white on lower part; iris silvery; pale yellow to gold outer margin of dorsal and upper and lower edges of caudal fin. Fins mainly white to translucent. Juveniles up to 16mm in length are mostly white with a prominent yellow stripe along the lateral line (Figure 3). Adults are generally of the same size as other Altrichthys adults, approximately 70–80mm TL. Altrichthys alelia differs from A. curatus by having long filaments at the trailing edges of the dorsal and caudal fins, and from A. azurelineatus by lacking any black lining of the outer edges of dorsal and caudal fins. These black margins are represented by yellow/gold margins in A. alelia (Figure 4). Pored lateral line scales easily distinguish A. curatus (17–18) and A. azurelineatus (10-14). Counts for A. alelia are most similar to and overlap A. azurelineatus counts, but exhibit a higher mode (15).

Distribution: Known from northern Busuanga Island at San José, Palawan Province, Philippines (Figure 2).
Habitat: Collected off live and extensive thickets of corals mostly Porites cylindrica.

Etymology: The name Altrichthys alelia derives from the combined first names of Alessio Bernardi and Amalia Bernardi, who greatly helped during field-work on Altrichthys.

Common name: We suggest Alelia’s damselfish as a literal translation of the scientific name.


 Giacomo Bernardi, Gary C. Longo and T.E. Angela L. Quiros. 2017. Altrichthys alelia, A New Brooding Damselfish (Teleostei, Perciformes, Pomacentridae) from Busuanga Island, Philippines.   ZooKeys. 675: 45-55.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.675.12061

Friday, May 19, 2017

[Entomology • 2017] Burmagomphus chiangmaiensis • A New Species of the Genus Burmagomphus Williamson (Odonata: Gomphidae) from Northern Thailand


Burmagomphus chiangmaiensis Makbun, 2017

Abstract

Burmagomphus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (holotype: Ban Luang, Chom Thong, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, 890-900 m, 14 v 2012) is described and illustrated. It can be differentiated from its most similar congener, B. apricus from China, by shape of posterior hamulus, yellow trapezoid band on occiput, and larger size.

Keywords: dragonfly, Anisoptera, Gomphidae, Burmagomphus, new species, Thailand, Odonata




Noppadon Makbun. 2017. A New Species of the Genus Burmagomphus Williamson (Odonata: Gomphidae) from Northern Thailand. Zootaxa. 4269(1); 133–136. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4269.1.7

[Botany • 2017] A Revision and Recircumscription of Begonia Section Pilderia including One New Species, Begonia tepuiensis


Begonia tepuiensis Moonlight & Jara  

Abstract

Novel phylogenetic data is used to show that the poorly-known species Begonia glandulifera and Begonia mariannensis form a clade with Begonia buddleiifolia, the type species of Begonia section Pilderia. A unique combination of characters is identified in this group and used to re-circumscribe the section to include these species, and two morphologically similar species: Begonia jenmanii, and Begonia humillianaA new species is described herein as Begonia tepuiensis sp. nov. from a single tepui in the Amazonas State of Venezuela. A full taxonomic revision and key to the species of Begonia section Pilderia is presented and we assign all species to IUCN Red List categories.

Keywords: Andes, Begonia section Pilderia, Neotropics, Phylogeny, Guyana Shield, Trinidad and Tobago, Eudicots


Begonia section Pilderia (Klotzsch) A.DC. 
 Distribution:— Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Perú, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela. 

1. Begonia buddleiifolia A.DC. (1859)
2. Begonia glandulifera Griseb. (1860) 
3. Begonia humillima L.B.Sm. & Wassh. (1973)  
4. Begonia jenmanii Tutin (1940) 
5. Begonia mariannensis Wassh. & T. McClellan (1995) 

6. Begonia tepuiensis Moonlight & Jara spec. nov.

Etymology:— The genus Begonia is relatively poorly known from the tepuis of northern Amazonia. We name this species B. tepuiensis as it is only the third Begonia species described exclusively from tepuis after B. steyermarkii L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub and B. nubicola L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub.


FIGURE 6. Begonia tepuiensis Moonlight & Jara. 
A. Habit, flowering top; B. Habit, shoot with rooting nodes; C. Female flower (side view); D. Stigma (front view); E. Stigma (back view); F. Bract; G. Detail of leaf hairs, upper lamina; H. Detail of leaf hairs, lower lamina. 

Drawn from type collection R.S. Cowen & J.J. Wurdack 31443 by Claire Banks. 


P.W. Moonlight and A. Jara-Muñoz. 2017. A Revision and Recircumscription of Begonia Section Pilderia including One New Species. Phytotaxa. 307(1); 1-22.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.307.1.1.

Resumen: Se usaron nuevos datos filogenéticos para mostrar que las especies pobremente conocidas: Begonia glandulifera y Begonia mariannensis forman un clado con Begonia buddleiifolia, la especie tipo de Begonia sección Pilderia. Se identificaron una combinación única de caracteres en este grupo, que fueron usados para re-circunscribir la sección incluyendo estas especies, y dos especies morfológicamente similares: Begonia jenmanii y Begonia humilliana. Se describe una nueva especieBegonia tepuiensis sp. nov. de un tepui en el estado Amazonas de Venezuela. Se presenta también una revisión taxonómica completa y una clave para las especies de Begonia sección Pilderia y asignamos todas las especies a categorías de la Lista Roja de la UICN.

[Botany • 2017] Phrynium yunnanense • A New Species (Marantaceae) from Yunnan, China


Phrynium yunnanense    Y.S.Ye & L.Fu

Abstract

Phrynium yunnanense, a new species from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to P. hainanense T.L.Wu & S.J.Chen and P. pedunculiferum D.Fang, but it is distinguished by having long peduncle (20–45 cm), bright orange bracts and fruits. A comparison table and the line illustration are presented.

Keywords: new species, Phrynium hainanense, Phrynium pedunculiferum, taxonomy, Monocots



Phrynium yunnanense Y.S.Ye & L.Fu, sp. nov.  

 Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to Yunnan Province in China.

Lin Fu, Yu-Shi Ye and Jing-Ping Liao. 2017. Phrynium yunnanense (Marantaceae), A New Species from Yunnan, China.  Phytotaxa. 307(1); 89-94. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.307.1.9

   

[Crustacea • 2017] Redescription of the Freshwater Shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877) (Caridea, Palaemonidae)


Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877)  

Abstract

Macrobrachium jelskii is a freshwater shrimp endemic to South America, occurring in all major Brazilian basins. It is used in various activities, such as fishing, fishkeeping and even as food for humans and animals, and therefore its distribution is affected by anthropic influence. Misidentification of M. jelskii is recurrent because of its morphological similarity to some sympatric species such as M. amazonicum and M. acanthurus. Thus, the aim of this study is to redescribe M. jelskii, proposing some characteristics that allow for a clearer differentiation of this species when compared to other similar congeneric species that occur in South America. The informative characters were the size and the shape of the rostrum, the ratio of the carpus and chela, the ratio of the chela and carapace length and the shape of the carpus of the second pereiopod, as well as the ratio between the length of the internal pair of posterior spine of telson and median apex of the posterior margin of telson. Although the intraspecific variability is high, the combination of the characters mentioned herein, including a morphological key, is very useful and makes it easier to differentiate between these three species.

Keywords: Crustacea, Decapoda, identification key, Macrobrachium amazonicum, Macrobrachium acanthurus, South America




Ana Luiza Vera-Silva, Fabrício L. Carvalho and Fernando Luis Mantelatto. 2017. Redescription of the Freshwater Shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877) (Caridea, Palaemonidae). Zootaxa. 4269(1); 44–60. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4269.1.2

Thursday, May 18, 2017

[Botany • 2017] Selaginella guihaia • A New Spikemoss Species (Selaginellaceae) from southern China and northern Vietnam around the Gulf of Tonkin


Selaginella guihaia   X.C.Zhang


Abstract
Selaginella guihaia sp. nov. (Selaginellaceae), a new species of spikemoss from southern China and northern Vietnam around the Gulf of Tonkin (Beibu Gulf), is described and illustrated. Morphological and molecular comparisons of the new species with other similar species (S. doederleinii, S. ornata and S. trachyphylla) are provided. The morphological and molecular evidence clearly indicates S. guihaia is a distinct species. Morphologically S. guihaia differs from other species by its obviously white–margined leaves, the ventral leaves scabrous on upper surfaces throughout the basiscopic or also rarely present on upper halves, and the ovate axillary leaves.

Keywords: Lycopodiophyta, lycophytes, taxonomy, new species, rbcL, ITS


Figure 2. Selaginella guihaia X.C.Zhang
A Habit B Dorsal leaf C Ventral leaf D Part of main stem showing ventral leaves, dorsal leaves, and strobili E Part of main stem showing ventral leaves, axillary leaves, and strobili F Megasporophyll G Microsporophyll
 (Drawn by C.Z. Ji from Beijing Youth Expedition 0980, PE). 

Figure 4. Selaginella guihaia X.C.Zhang, sp. nov.
A Dorsal view of branch B Ventral view of branch. C Strobilus D Rhizophore E Habit. 

Selaginella guihaia X.C.Zhang, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: The new species is similar to Selaginella doederleiniiS. ornata and S. trachyphylla in the habit and the morphology of dorsal leaves, ventral leaves, axillary leaves and sporophylls. However, S. guihaia can be easily recognized by its obvious white–margined leaves. The white-margin is about three cells wide in S. guihaia, but it is only one cell wide in S. doederleiniiS. ornata, and S. trachyphylla.

Type: China, Guangxi: Pingxiang, Mt. Daqingshan, alt. 600m, 27 Aug 1986, Beijing Youth Expedition 0980 (Holotype: PE![No. 1365103]) (Figure 3).


Distribution and ecology: Widely distributed in southern China (Guangxi and Hainan) and northern Vietnam around the Gulf of Tonkin (Beibu Gulf), growing in evergreen broad–leaved forests at 250 to 1000 m a.s.l. (Figures 4, 5).

Etymology: The specific epithet “guihaia” alludes to the ancient Chinese name for the remote geographic region where the species occurs.


 Yu-Dong Wu, Hong-Rui Zhang and Xian-Chun Zhang. 2017. Selaginella guihaia (Selaginellaceae): A New Spikemoss Species from southern China and northern Vietnam around the Gulf of Tonkin. PhytoKeys. 80; 41-52.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.80.11126

Wednesday, May 17, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Gymnotocinclus canoeiro • A New Species of Gymnotocinclus from the rio Tocantins Basin with Phylogenetic Analysis of the Subfamily Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)


Gymnotocinclus canoeiro 
Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Zawadzki, 2017

Abstract

Gymnotocinclus canoeiro n. sp. of the Hypoptopomatinae is described from small tributaries of the upper rio Tocantins basin. It is distinguished from G. anosteos by having five characters: (1) the presence of body dermal plates, (2) the pectoral girdle not exposed in ventral view, (3) the pelvic spine longer than pectoral spine in males, (4) the pectoral fin with seven to eight branched rays, and (5) the presence of an adipose fin. Furthermore, maximum likelihood (ML) analysis was used to estimate a molecular phylogeny from previously published data of one nuclear (F-Reticulon 4) and three mitochondrial (16S RNA, COI and CytB) genes. The phylogenetic results revealed the new species as a sister taxon of Gymnotocinclus anosteos within the Otothyrini. We also included samples of Nannoplecostomus eleonorae that appeared sister group to all other Neoplecostomini species, and Plesioptopoma curvidens that appeared within the Neoplecostomini forming a sister clade to all species of Neoplecostomus, except N. ribeirensis and the species of Pareiorhina, except P. rudolphi.

Keywords: Cascudinhos, catfish, freshwater fishes, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, Pisces


FIGURE 5. Live specimen of Gymnotocinclus canoeiro, holotype, MZUSP 121544, 51.5 mm SL. 

Etymology. The specific name “canoeiro” is from Portuguese language for those person or people who handle and/or build canoes. The name is a reference to the indigenous people Avá-Canoeiro, a once numerous and powerful indigenous people inhabiting the upper rio Tocantins valley. The Avá-Canoeiro are now restricted to some small villages due to a series of gradual and abrupt murders, diseases, and the lack of legal hunting territories (Pequeno, 2005). Recently, the Avá-Canoeiro were known as the invisible people due to the fact that some of the few survivors used to live for more than a decade in caves to avoid contact with civilization, just leaving the caves at night to collect and chase food. 

Distribution. Gymnotocinclus canoeiro is known from a single locality of a small tributary of the rio das Almas, which flows to the rio Paranã, rio Tocantins basin, Brazil (Fig. 7). 

Ecological notes. The new species Gymnotocinclus canoeiro is found in a shallow and small clear water river, with rocky outcrops forming small waterfalls and substrates of rocks and sand,. In several portions of the stream where the new species was found, the marginal vegetation was well preserved, and due to the large trees there is poor light penetration. The species was found at the bottom of the river associated with substrates of rocks and wood.  


 Fábio F. Roxo, Gabriel S. C. Silva, Luz E. Ochoa and Cláudio H. Zawadzki. 2017. Description of A New Species of Gymnotocinclus from the rio Tocantins Basin with Phylogenetic Analysis of the Subfamily Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). Zootaxa. 4268(3); 337–359.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4268.3.2

  

[Paleontology • 2017] Lucianovenator bonoi • A Late Norian-Rhaetian Coelophysid Neotheropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, Northwestern Argentina


Lucianovenator bonoi 
Martínez & Apaldetti, 2017 
DOI: 
10.5710/AMGH.09.04.2017.3065   

Abstract

Coelophysoids are the most abundant theropod dinosaurs known from the Late Triassic through Early Jurassic represent the earliest major radiation of Neotheropoda. Within Coelophysoidea sensu lato the most stable clade is Coelophysidae, small theropods characterized by long neck and light and kinetic skull. Coelophysids are the most abundant basal non-Tetanurae neotheropods known worldwide, but until recently they were unknown from South America. We report here a new coelophysid neotheropod, Lucianovenator bonoi gen. et sp. nov., from the late Norian-Rhaetian Quebrada del Barro Formation, northwestern Argentina. A phylogenetic analysis recovers Lucianovenator bonoi nested into the monophyletic group Coelophysidae in an unresolved clade together with Coelophysis rhodesiensis and Camposaurus arizonensis. The presence of Lucianovenator in the late Norian-Rhaetian of Argentina increases the poor and scarce record of Triassic South American neotheropods, suggesting that the virtual absence of theropods in the fossil record during the Rhaetian is probably a taphonomic/stratigraphic bias instead of a decline in diversity and abundance after the Norian. Finally, the new find corroborates the American endemism in the Late Triassic and worldwide distribution during the Early Jurassic of coelophysid neotheropods, supporting the extreme faunal homogeneity hypothesized for Early Jurassic continental biotas.




Ricardo N. Martínez and Cecilia Apaldetti. 2017. A Late Norian-Rhaetian Coelophysid Neotheropod (Dinosauria, Saurischia) from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, Northwestern Argentina. Ameghiniana.  in press. DOI: 10.5710/AMGH.09.04.2017.3065  



`Lucianovenator bonoi´, el dinosaurio hallado en Caucete, único en su tipo de Sudamérica
Es un carnívoro de comienzos del Jurásico, considerado entre los más primitivos antecesores de las aves actuales. Fue presentado este viernes. Por qué lleva ese nombre.
Dinosaurio de   San Juan, único en Sudamérica http://www.losandes.com.ar/s/960420  @LosAndesDiario

[Botany • 2017] Danxiaorchis yangii the Second Species of Danxiaorchis (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), from Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China


Danxiaorchis yangii   B. Y. Yang et Bo Li


Abstract

Danxiaorchis yangii (Calypsoinae, Epidendreae, Epidendroideae), a holomycotrophic new species from Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve, western Jiangxi, eastern of China, is here illustrated and described based on both morphological and phylogenetic evidences. The new species can be easily distinguished from D. singchiana by its much smaller flowers and larger Y-shaped callus adaxially bearing a additional obovoid appendage, and by its four pollinia narrowly elliptic in shape and equal in size.

Keywords: Danxiaorchis, Jinggangshan Mountains, Jiangxi orchids, phylogenetic analysis, Monocots


  

FIGURE 3. Morphology of Danxiaorchis yangii B. Y. Yang et Bo Li, sp. nov. (A–I).
A. Flowering in nature habitat and rhizome (showed in the black circle); B. Front view of a flower; C. Bottom view of labellum, showing two sacs; D. Front view of the Y-shaped appendage of labellum; E. Upper view of a labellum with column; F. Side view of a labellum with column; G. Side view of the Y-shaped appendage of the labellum; H. Capsule; I, Pollinarium.
 Scale bars: B = 1 cm; C, D, E = 5 mm; F, G, I = 1 mm; H = 1 cm.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.306.4.5

Taxonomy
 Danxiaorchis yangii B. Y. Yang et Bo Li, sp. nov. 

 Diagnosis:— Danxiaorchis yangii obviously differs from D. singchiana in its Y-shaped callus adaxially bearing a remarkable obovoid appendage, and in its four pollinia narrowly elliptic in shape and equal in size.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the family name of the first author, Pro. Boyun Yang, who devotes himself to the conservation of orchids biodiversity in Jiangxi Province, China.

Distribution and habitat:— To date, the species was discovered only from Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in western Jiangxi, eastern of China. It occurs in nearly the same longitude as D. singchiana but in higher latitude (Fig. 4). D. yangii frequently grows at the margin of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, under mixed shrubs and bamboo forest, in wet places at elevations of 360 m a.s.l.

Discussion:
 With the characteristic large Y-shaped appendage on its labellum, D. yangii is a certainty member of the genus Danxiaorchis, and it was well supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses based on combined datasets of ITS and matK (Fig. 1). After thorough morphological comparison between D. yangii and D. singchiana, we found that D. yangii can be easily distinguished from D. singchiana in many aspects (Fig. 3). Superficially the plants of i. yangii are shorter than those of D. singchiana, and its flowers are much smaller, whereas its Y-shaped appendages are much larger than those of D. singchiana. Besides, the adaxial side of the Y-shaped appendages in D. singchiana is flat or slightly raised, while in D. yangii, the adaxial side additionally bears a remarkable obovoid appendage with its size ca. 3.0–3.5 mm in diameter (Fig. 3 G vs. b). Furthermore, there is an essential difference between D. yangii and D. singchiana: the four pollinia of D. yangii are narrowly elliptic in shape and equal in size, while those of D. singchiana are subobovoid-globose with two pollinia unequal in size in each pair (Fig. 3 I vs. c). Consequently, we found out that D. yangii can be treated as a distinct species, which is the second species in Danxiaorchis.


Boyun Yang, Shihe Xiao, Yawen Jiang, Huolin Luo, Dongjin Xiong, Junwen Zhai and Bo Li. 2017. Danxiaorchis yangii sp. nov. (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae), the Second Species of DanxiaorchisPhytotaxa. 306(4); 287–295.  DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.306.4.5


Danxiaorchis (J.W. Zhai, F.W. Xing et Z.J. Liu in Zhai et al. 2013)
Zhai, J.W., Zhang, G.Q., Chen, L.J., Xiao, X.J., Liu, K.W., Tsai, W.C., Hsiao, Y.Y., Tian, H.Z., Zhu, J.Q., Wang, M.N., Wang, F.G., Xing, F.W. and Liu, Z.J. 2013. A new orchid genus, Danxiaorchis, and phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Calypsoeae. PloS One. 8: e60371. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060371